Adams J, Galloway T , Mondal D, Esteves S, Mathews F. (2014). Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environment International. 80, 106-112.

  • Our analyses indicate negative associations between mobile phone exposure on sperm viability and motility. The effects on concentration are more equivocal. Further research is required to quantify these effects more precisely and to evaluate the clinical importance of the risk to both sub-fertile men and the general population.

Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R. (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RFEMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study, Fertil Steril. (4), 1318-25.

  • “Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.”

Atasoy HI, Gunal MY, Atasoy P, Elgun S, Bugdayci G. (2013). Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 9(2), 223-9.

  • Significant increases in serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels and 8-hydroxyguanosine staining in the testes of the experimental group indicating DNA damage due to exposure (p < 0.05).

Avendaño C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF.(2012). Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.Fertility Sterility. 97(1), 39-45.

  • Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect.

Azadi Oskouyi E, Rajaei F, Safari Variani A, Sarokhani MR, Javadi A. (2014). Effects of microwaves (950 MHZ mobile phone) on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis. Andrologia.

  • The epithelial height and diameter of the epididymis in 3 watt and 6 watt groups ( 2 weeks, 2 h a day with a frequency of 950 MHZ) had a significant decrease, the testosterone level only in 6 watt group was significantly decreased. The rate of apoptosis in the epithelial cells of the epididymis had a significant increase in 6 watt group.
  • The epididymis is a tube connecting the ducts from each testicle to its vas deferens.
  • “This study showed that the microwaves with the frequency of 950 MHz can have negative impacts on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis.’

DeIuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ.(2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. Plos One July 31, 4(7)

  • In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001). Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure.
  • “These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring”.

Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7, 114.

  • “This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed.
  • We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system).
  • This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling”.

Ghanbari M, Mortazavi SB, Khavanin A, Khazaei M. (2013). The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 7(1), 21-8.

  • Sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05).
  • Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significant decrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05).
  • “CONCLUSION: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.”

Gul A, Celebi H, Uğraş S.(2009). The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 280(5), 729-33.

  • Exposure: 30 minutes every 24 hours pregnancy.
  • “ decreased number of follicles in pups exposed to mobile phone microwaves suggest that intrauterine exposure has toxic effects on ovaries.”
  • “microwaves of mobile phones might decrease the number of follicles in rats by several known and, no doubt, countless unknown mechanisms.”

La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, D’Agata R, Calogero A. (2012) Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. Journal of Andrology. 33(3), 350-356.

  • Review of Research: “The results showed that human spermatozoa exposed to RF-EMR have decreased motility, morphometric abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress, whereas men using mobile phones have decreased sperm concentration, decreased motility (particularly rapid progressive motility), normal morphology, and decreased viability. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use.”

Markov M, Grigoriev YG.(2013). Wi-Fi technology – an uncontrolled global experiment on the health of mankind. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 32(2), 200-8

  • “For the first time in the history of mankind, because of aggressive use of mobile phones children are exposed to harmful non ionizing radiation and potentially are subject of larger risk than adults. Even if the dose received by the children’s brain is the same as for adults, due to the specificity of the body size and physiological development, children are in greater danger.”
  • We should stop telling the science, politicians and general population that Wi-Fi is harmless… We should better be honest and say that “we do not know what long-term effects might be.”
  • “the continuous non-controlled exposure of the entire civilization to low-intensity EMFs represents now more serious problem for the mankind than ionizing radiation where the sources of radiation are under strict control and are well localized”

Panagopoulos D, Johansson O, Carlo G. (2013). Analysing the Health Impacts of Modern Telecommunications Microwaves. PLoS One. 8(6).

  • “In the present study we showed that microwave radiations used in modern mobile telecommunications can damage DNA and induce cell death or heritable mutations which may in turn result in reproduction decreases, degenerative diseases, or cancer. We analyzed the biophysical and biochemical mechanism underlying this biological impact, and discussed dosimetry and protection issues.
  • All healthy organisms have defense mechanisms in order to repair biological damages. But defense mechanisms are weaker in children and old individuals, and become also weaker during sickness or during stress conditions. Although even the most serious biological effects may not necessarily lead to health effects in an exposed individual, all health effects are initiated by corresponding biological ones. Thereby, biological effects-especially the most serious ones as is DNA damage or cell death induction-may potentially lead to health effects.

Panagopoulos D. (2012). Effect of microwave exposure on the ovarian development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Biochem Biophys. 63(2), 121-32.

  • “the ovarian size of the exposed insects is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding sham-exposed insects, due to destruction of egg chambers by the GSM radiation, after DNA damage and consequent cell death induction in the egg chamber” cells of the virgin females as shown in previous experiments on inseminated females.
  • “The difference in ovarian size between sham-exposed and exposed virgin female flies becomes most evident 39-45 h after eclosion when the first eggs within the ovaries are at the late vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages (mid-late oogenesis). More than 45 h after eclosion, the difference in ovarian size decreases, as the first mature eggs of the sham-exposed insects are leaving the ovaries and are laid.”
  • Marko Markov and Yuri G. Grigoriev of the National Committee of Non-Ionizing

Shahin S, Mishra V, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM.(2014). 2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation Adversely Affects Reproductive Function in Male Mouse, Mus musculus by Inducing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress. Free Radic Res. 48(5), 511-25.

  • Significant decrease in sperm count , sperm viability , decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter, degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels and increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed.
  • These “adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to microwave radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.”




Studies showing reproductive effects

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