Increased protein synthesis by cells exposed to a 1,800-MHz radio-frequency mobile phone electromagnetic field, detected by proteome profiling
Int Arch Occup Environ Health (2010-02)PURPOSE: To investigate whether or not low intensity radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EME) associated with mobile phone use can affect human cells, we used a sensitive proteome analysis method to study changes in protein synthesis in cultured human cells.
METHODS: Four different cell kinds were exposed to 2 W/kg specific absorption rate in medium containing 35S-methionine/cysteine, and autoradiography of 2D gel spots was used to measure the increased synthesis of individual proteins.
RESULTS: While short-term RF-EME did not significantly alter the proteome, an 8-h exposure caused a significant increase in protein synthesis in Jurkat T-cells and human fibroblasts, and to a lesser extent in activated primary human mononuclear cells. Quiescent (metabolically inactive) mononuclear cells, did not detectably respond to RF-EME. Since RF exposure induced a temperature increase of less than 0.15 degrees C, we suggest that the observed cellular response is a so called “athermal” effect of RF-EME.
CONCLUSION: Our finding of an association between metabolic activity and the observed cellular reaction to low intensity RF-EME may reconcile conflicting results of previous studies. We further postulate that the observed increased protein synthesis reflects an increased rate of protein turnover stemming from protein folding problems caused by the interference of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields with hydrogen bonds. Our observations do not directly imply a health risk. However, vis-a-vis a synopsis of reports on cells stress and DNA breaks, after short and longer exposure, on active and inactive cells, our findings may contribute to the re-evaluation of previous reports.Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations
International Journal of Occupational and Environm (2010)Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of longterm mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.Seletun Scientific Statement
Scientific Panel on EFH Risks (2009-11-17)In November, 2009, a scientific panel met in Seletun, Norway, for three days of intensive discussion on existing scientific evidence and public health implications of the unprecedented global exposures to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). EMF exposures (static to 300 GHz) result from the use of electric power and from wireless telecommunications technologies for voice and data transmission, energy, security, military and radar use in weather and transportation. The Scientific Panel recognizes that the body of evidence on EMF requires a new approach to protection of public health; the growth and development of the fetus, and of children; and argues for strong preventative actions. New, biologically-based public exposure standards are urgently needed to protect public health worldwide.The Porto Alegre Resolution
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and the (2009)We, the undersigned scientists, were honored to participate in a workshop organized by the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and the Public Ministry of Rio Grande do Sul and sponsored by the Brazilian Health Ministry, the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety, the Porto Alegre Environmental Council (COMAM/PA), the Rio Grande do Sul Center for Health Vigilance (CEVS/RS) and others, entitled, “International Workshop on Non-Ionizing Radiation, Health and Environment” which took place on May 18 and 19, 2009, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. This resolution follows several international resolutions agreed to by concerned scientists and medical doctors over the past decade, including resolutions developed by the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety , based on evidence and consideration on documents such as the BioInitiative Report  and a special issue of the journal Pathophysiology on electrical and magnetic fields, published in August 2009 .
We recognize that, in Brazil as well as all over the world, where there has been an unprecedented explosion in the availability and use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields for electrical and wireless communications technologies (mobile and cordless phones, WiFi and WIMAX networks, RFID, etc,), as well as major electrical grid and wireless broadband infrastructure changes, this assessment should inform risk management to take proper steps to protect the public from longterm, low-level exposure to extremely-low frequency as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields that have substantially increased in the ambient environment in recent years.
We are concerned about the body of evidence that indicates that exposure to electromagnetic fields interferes with basic human biology and may increase the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The exposure levels at which these effects have been observed are many times lower than the standards promulgated by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing radiation Protection (ICNIRP)  and the IEEE’s International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES) . These standards are obsolete and were derived from biological effects of short-term high intensity exposures that cause health effects by temperature elevation and nerve excitation discovered decades ago. Recent research indicates that electromagnetic fields could cause detrimental health effects even at very low levels of exposure. The ICNIRP and IEEE/ICES standards are being supported and promoted by interested parties to avoid precautionary technical planning, precautionary laws, and precautionary advice to the public.Cognitive and neurobiological alterations in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients: results of a case-control study
Psychol Med (2008-03)BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is frequently claimed to be linked to a variety of non-specific somatic and neuropsychological complaints. Whereas provocation studies often failed to demonstrate a causal relationship between EMF exposure and symptom formation, recent studies point to a complex interplay of neurophysiological and cognitive alterations contributing to symptom manifestation in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients (EHS). However, these studies have examined only small sample sizes or have focused on selected aspects. Therefore this study examined in the largest sample of EHS EMF-specific cognitive correlates, discrimination ability and neurobiological parameters in order to get further insight into the pathophysiology of electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
METHOD: In a case-control design 89 EHS and 107 age- and gender-matched controls were included in the study. Health status and EMF-specific cognitions were evaluated using standardized questionnaires. Perception thresholds following single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were determined using a standardized blinded measurement protocol. Cortical excitability parameters were measured by TMS.
RESULTS: Discrimination ability was significantly reduced in EHS (only 40% of the EHS but 60% of the controls felt no sensation under sham stimulation during the complete series), whereas the perception thresholds for real magnetic pulses were comparable in both groups (median 21% versus 24% of maximum pulse intensity). Intra-cortical facilitation was decreased in younger and increased in older EHS. In addition, typical EMF-related cognitions (aspects of rumination, symptom intolerance, vulnerability and stabilizing self-esteem) specifically differentiated EHS from their controls.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate significant cognitive and neurobiological alterations pointing to a higher genuine individual vulnerability of electromagnetic hypersensitive patients.Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin, BMC Genomics
BMC Genomics (2008-02)BACKGROUND: Earlier we have shown that the mobile phone radiation (radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF) alters protein expression in human endothelial cell line. This does not mean that similar response will take place in human body exposed to this radiation. Therefore, in this pilot human volunteer study, using proteomics approach, we have examined whether a local exposure of human skin to RF-EMF will cause changes in protein expression in living people.
RESULTS: Small area of forearm’s skin in 10 female volunteers was exposed to RF-EMF (specific absorption rate SAR = 1.3 W/kg) and punch biopsies were collected from exposed and non-exposed areas of skin. Proteins extracted from biopsies were separated using 2-DE and protein expression changes were analyzed using PDQuest software. Analysis has identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected (Anova and Wilcoxon tests). Two of the proteins were present in all 10 volunteers. This suggests that protein expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF. The number of affected proteins was similar to the number of affected proteins observed in our earlier in vitro studies.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing that molecular level changes might take place in human volunteers in response to exposure to RF-EMF. Our study confirms that proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers.Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.
Neurotoxicology (2007-03)AIM: To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ).
RESULTS: The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P<0.05). The NBTB indicated that the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.Cell type specific redox status is responsible for diverse electromagnetic field effects
Curr Med Chem (2007)Epidemiologic and experimental research on the potential carcinogenic effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) has been performed for a long time. Epidemiologic studies regarding ELF-EMF-exposure have focused primarily on leukaemia development due to residential sources in children and adults, and from occupational exposure in adults, but also on other kinds of cancer.
Genotoxic investigations of EMF have shown contradictory results, a biological mechanism is still lacking that can explain the link between cancer development and ELF-EMF-exposure. Recent laboratory research has attempted to show general biological effects, and such that could be related to cancer development and/or promotion. Metabolic processes which generate oxidants and antioxidants can be influenced by environmental factors, such as ELF-EMF. Increased ELF-EMF exposure can modify the activity of the organism by reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress.
It is well established that free radicals can interact with DNA resulting in single strand breaks. DNA damage could become a site of mutation, a key step to carcinogenesis. Furthermore, different cell types react differently to the same stimulus, because of their cell type specific redox status. The modulation of cellular redox balance by the enhancement of oxidative intermediates, or the inhibition or reduction of antioxidants, is discussed in this review. An additional aspect of free radicals is their function to influence other illnesses such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
On the other hand, modulation of antioxidants by ELF-EMF can lower the intracellular defence activity promoting the development of DNA damage. It has also been demonstrated that low levels of reactive oxygen species trigger intracellular signals that involve the transcription of genes and leading to responses including cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this review, a general overview is given about oxidative stress, as well as experimental studies are reviewed as they are related to changes in oxidant and antioxidant content after ELF-EMF exposure inducing different biological effects.
Finally, we conclude from our review that modulations on the oxidant and antioxidant level through ELF-EMF exposure can play a causal role in cancer development.Electromagnetic absorption in the head of adults and children due to mobile phone operation close to the head.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) (2006)A new Brazilian study has found that children absorb more radiation at widely used mobile phone frequencies (tested were 850 MHz and 1850 MHz). Using realistic models of the head, it was found that the SAR of a phone are typically more than 60% higher than reported when being used by a 10 year old. This of course means that phones with SAR values close to guideline limits will be exposing these limits if used by a young child, which has interesting legal implications.Electrohypersensitivity: state-of-the-art of a functional impairment.
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute.. (2006)From the Abstract: “In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an officially fully recognized functional impairment. Survey studies show that somewhere between 230,000-290,000 Swedish men and women report a variety of symptoms when being in contact with electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. The aim of our studies has been to investigate possible alterations, in the cellular and neuronal systems of these person’ skin.”
Olle Johansson has produced another study where he has found from his preliminary data that the skin of electrically hypersensitive people is noticeably different to those without the “functional impairment”. He summarises, ‘In view of recent epidemiological studies, pointing to a correlation between long-term exposure from power-frequent magnetic fields or microwaves and cancer, our data ought to be taken seriously and further analyzed.’The Netanya Study
Ronni Wolf (MD) & Danny Wolf (MD) (2004-04)Our study indicates an association between an increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station. … The measured level of RF radiation (power density) in the area was low; far below the current guidelines based on the thermal effects of RF exposure. We suggest, therefore, that the current guidelines be re-evaluated. … The enormous short latency period; less than 2 years, indicates that if there is a real causal association between RF radiation emitted from the cell-phone base station and the cancer cases (which we strongly believe there is) then the RF radiation should have a very strong promoting effect on cancer at very low radiation!The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer
Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft (2004)Following the call by Wolfram König, President of the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Federal Agency for radiation protection), to all doctors of medicine to collaborate actively in the assessment of the risk posed by cellular radiation, the aim of our study was to examine whether people living close to cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to a heightened risk of taking ill with malignant tumors.
The basis of the data used for the survey were PC files of the case histories of patients between the years 1994 and 2004. While adhering to data protection, the personal data of almost 1,000 patients were evaluated for this study, which was completed without any external financial support. It is intended to continue the project in the form of a register.
The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier.
In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years’ operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones
National Institute of Environmental Health Science (2003-06)The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for the human body is a growing concern for our society. We have previously shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated whether a pathologic leakage across the blood-brain barrier might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups each of eight rats were exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found highly significant (p < 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.Freiberger Appeal
IGUMED (2002)The Freiberger Appeal is a German based petition initiated by 50 medical practitioners who were concerned about the effects of mobile phone technology (including masts) which they’d observed in their patients. Since its inception in 2002 and with little international publicity, this appeal and similar spin-off appeals have been signed by several thousand doctors.
“Out of great concern for the health of our fellow human beings do we – as established physicians of all fieds – turn to the medical establishment and those in public health and political domains, as well as to the public.
We have observed, in recent years, a dramatic rise in severe and chronic diseases diseases among our patients, especially:
* Learning, concentration, and behavioural disorders (e.g. attention deficit disorder, ADD)
* Extreme fluctuations in blood pressure, ever harder to influence with medications
* Heart rhythm disorders
* Heart attacks and strokes among an increasingly younger population
* Brain-degenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s) and epilepsy
* Cancerous afflictions: leukemia, brain tumors”
…Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I/Incidence according to distance and sex
Pathol Biol (Paris) (2002)A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells
Bioelectromagnetics (2002)As part of a comprehensive investigation of the potential genotoxicity of radiofrequency (RF) signals emitted by cellular telephones, in vitro studies evaluated the induction of DNA and chromosomal damage in human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes, respectively.
The signals were voice modulated 837 MHz produced by an analog signal generator or by a time division multiple access (TDMA) cellular telephone, 837 MHz generated by a code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular telephone (not voice modulated), and voice modulated 1909.8 MHz generated by a global system of mobile communication (GSM)-type personal communication systems (PCS) cellular telephone.
DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in leukocytes using the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in lymphocytes mitogenically stimulated to divide postexposure using the cytochalasin B-binucleate cell micronucleus assay. Cells were exposed at 37+/-1 degrees C, for 3 or 24 h at average specific absorption rates (SARs) of 1.0-10.0 W/kg. Exposure for either 3 or 24 h did not induce a significant increase in DNA damage in leukocytes, nor did exposure for 3 h induce a significant increase in micronucleated cells among lymphocytes.
However, exposure to each of the four RF signal technologies for 24 h at an average SAR of 5.0 or 10.0 W/kg resulted in a significant and reproducible increase in the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes. The magnitude of the response (approximately four fold) was independent of the technology, the presence or absence of voice modulation, and the frequency (837 vs. 1909.8 MHz).
This research demonstrates that, under extended exposure conditions, RF signals at an average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells
Bioelectromagnetics (1997)Effects of in vivo microwave exposure on DNA strand breaks, a form of DNA damage, were investigated in rat brain cells. In previous research, we have found that acute (2 hours) exposure to pulsed (2 microseconds pulses, 500 pps) 2450-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) (power density 2 mW/cm2, average whole body specific absorption rate 1.2 W/kg) caused an increase in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in brain cells of the rat when assayed 4 hours post exposure using a microgel electrophoresis assay. In the present study, we found that treatment of rats immediately before and after RFR exposure with either melatonin (1 mg/kg/injection, SC) or the spin-trap compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) (100 mg/kg/injection, i.p.) blocks this effects of RFR. Since both melatonin and PBN are efficient free radical scavengers it is hypothesized that free radicals are involved in RFR-induced DNA damage in the brain cells of rats. Since cumulated DNA strand breaks in brain cells can lead to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer and an excess of free radicals in cells has been suggested to be the cause of various human diseases, data from this study could have important implications for the health effects of RFR exposure.Magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the rat
Environ Health Perspect (1997)In previous research, we found that rats acutely (2 hr) exposed to a 60-Hz sinusoidal magnetic field at intensities of 0.1-0.5 millitesla (mT) showed increases in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in their brain cells. Further research showed that these effects could be blocked by pretreating the rats with the free radical scavengers melatonin and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone, suggesting the involvement of free radicals. In the present study, effects of magnetic field exposure on brain cell DNA in the rat were further investigated. Exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.01 mT for 24 hr caused a significant increase in DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Prolonging the exposure to 48 hr caused a larger increase. This indicates that the effect is cumulative. In addition, treatment with Trolox (a vitamin E analog) or 7-nitroindazole (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) blocked magnetic-field-induced DNA strand breaks. These data further support a role of free radicals on the effects of magnetic fields. Treatment with the iron chelator deferiprone also blocked the effects of magnetic fields on brain cell DNA, suggesting the involvement of iron. Acute magnetic field exposure increased apoptosis and necrosis of brain cells in the rat. We hypothesize that exposure to a 60-Hz magnetic field initiates an iron-mediated process (e.g., the Fenton reaction) that increases free radical formation in brain cells, leading to DNA strand breaks and cell death. This hypothesis could have an important implication for the possible health effects associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in the public and occupational environments.Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation
Int J Radiat Biol (1996-04)We investigated the effects of acute (2-h) exposure to pulsed (2-micros pulse width, 500 pulses s(-1)) and continuous wave 2450-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA strand breaks in brain cells of rat. The spatial averaged power density of the radiation was 2mW/cm2, which produced a whole-body average-specific absorption rate of 1.2W/kg. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in individual brain cells were measured at 4h post-exposure using a microgel electrophoresis assay. An increase in both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation, No significant difference was observed between the effects of the two forms of radiation. We speculate that these effects could result from a direct effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy on DNA molecules and/or impairment of DNA-damage repair mechanisms in brain cells. Our data further support the results of earlier in vitro and in vivo studies showing effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA.Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases D
Bioelectromagnetics (1995)Levels of DNA single-strand break were assayed in brain cells from rats acutely exposed to low-intensity 2450 MHz microwaves using an alkaline microgel electrophoresis method. Immediately after 2 h of exposure to pulsed (2 microseconds width, 500 pulses/s) microwaves, no significant effect was observed, whereas a dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. Furthermore, in rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-wave 2450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at 4 h postexposure.Rationale for Setting EMF Exposure Standards
Zhejiang University School of Medicine, (1985)China is one of the few countries which has conducted large-scale microwave radiation study on humans.
In the 1980s, in one study they use 1312 workers, divided them into a control group plus two groups of different occupational radiation levels. In another study, they used 1859 youngsters (kindergarten to college age). 1170 subjects were divided into various ages and exposure levels. Another group of 689 subjects at the same ages and grades acted as the control group.
The “results showed that chronic exposure to EMFs are associated with a variety of non-specific symptoms, including increased frequency of neuroses, liability of vegetation nervous system, and slight changes in peripheral blood, lens, and non-specific immune function… the existence of health hazardous effects of RF (radiofrequency) and MW (microwave) could not be denied.”Exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to electromagnetic fields associated with cellular phones leads to chromosomal instability.
Bioelectromagnetics ()Our results indicate that human cells exposed to RF radiation acquire premalignant genotypes associated with elevated levels of aneuploidy and abnormalities in replication mode as expressed in asynchrony in the replication timing of homologous chromosomal regions associated with chromosome segregation. These findings support the view that exposure to RF radiation of average SAR values of 2.6–8.8 W/kg may lead, through a nonthermal pathway, to a carcinogenic activity.
Our study does not elucidate the specific primary mechanism by which radiation interacts with the cell and alters its genetic material. However, it does demonstrate that exposure to RF radiation results in a gross somatic mutation leading to major modulation in gene expression which may be amplified by epigenetic mechanism of gene expression reflected by the asynchrony in the replication timing of the homologous DNA loci. Our work shows that aneuploidy was generated by the exposure to the electromagnetic radiation.
As, according to the aneuploidy theory, random chromosome number mutations evolving autocatalytically from the status of aneuploidy open the road to cancer, our results suggest the exposure to RF radiation at a SAR value of 2.9 W/Kg and above pose a risk for cancer.Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations
International Journal of Forestry Research ()Numerous incidents of aspen decline have been recorded in North America over the past half century, and incidents of very rapid mortality of aspen clones have been observed in Colorado since 2004. The radio frequency (RF) environment of the earth has undergone major changes in the past two centuries due to the development and use of electricity in power and communications applications, and the anthropogenic RF background continues to increase in intensity and complexity. This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.
Conclusion: The results of this preliminary experiment indicate that the RF background may be adversely affecting leaf and shoot growth and inhibiting fall production of anthocyanins associated with leaf senescence in trembling aspen seedlings. These effects suggest that exposure to the RF background may be an underlying factor in the recent rapid decline of aspen populations. Further studies are underway to test this hypothesis in a more rigorous way.